A series limited liability company allows a traditional limited liability company to separate into an unlimited number of multiple parts or “cells” with the establishment of one or more series of members, membership interests, managers, or assets – each a series – and each series is essentially treated like its own limited liability company (“LLC”). Currently, only the following states have statutes authorizing some form of series LLCs: Alabama, Delaware, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nevada, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Tennessee, Utah, Wisconsin and Texas. Texas enacted its statue in 2009 and it can be found in the Texas Business Organizations Code (“TBOC”), title 3, subchapter M, sections 101.601 – 101.621.
Typically, each series (i) owns its own assets and has its own liabilities; (ii) has the availability to have different members, managers and types of membership interests; (iii) has the ability to sue and be sued; (iv) can have its own business purpose; (v) has the ability to contract in its own name; and (vi) can grant a security interest in its own name.
Generally, the debts, liabilities, losses, obligations, and expenses of one series will not be enforceable against another series’ assets or the assets of the “parent” limited liability company. This makes it a viable option for any business where it is desirable to separate assets or business lines into distinct entities, such as investment companies, real estate development companies, oil and gas companies and licensing or regulatory companies. The TBOC provides that in order for the liability shield to exist three requirements must be satisfied: (i) the certificate of formation of the main LLC must contain a “notice provision”, which references the liability protection provided for by TBOC section 101.602(a); (ii) the company agreement of the main LLC must contain a statement setting forth the liability protection provided for by TBOC section 101.602(a); and (iii) records must be maintained for each series that “account for the assets associated with that series separately from the other assets of the [parent LLC] or any other series”.
One of the great benefits of series LLCs are the cost savings related to organizational filing fees. In Texas, the filing fee to create a series LLC is the same as an individual LLC; $300.00 (non-expedited). Thus, to create six LLCs would be a minimum cost of $1,800.00 versus the cost of creating a series LLC of $300.00. Oftentimes, series LLCs may also result in lower legal costs as it reduces the need for separate operating agreements and some document preparation.
While there are still issues to be considered when determining whether a series LLC might be right for a particular business, series LLCs are growing in popularity and are an additional tool in any investor’s or businesses’ proverbial toolkit.